In , Texas Instruments released the TMS, the first microprocessor with on-chip graphics capabilities and it could run general-purpose code, but it had a very graphics-oriented instruction set. In , this chip would become the basis of the Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture Windows accelerator cards, in , the IBM graphics system was released as one of the first video cards for IBM PC compatibles to implement fixed-function 2D primitives in electronic hardware. Fujitsu later competed with the FM Towns computer, released in with support for a full 16,, color palette, in , the first dedicated polygonal 3D graphics boards were introduced in arcades with the Namco System 21 and Taito Air System.
In , S3 Graphics introduced the S3 86C, which its designers named after the Porsche as an implication of the performance increase it promised. The 86C spawned a host of imitators, by , all major PC graphics chip makers had added 2D acceleration support to their chips. By this time, fixed-function Windows accelerators had surpassed expensive general-purpose graphics coprocessors in Windows performance, throughout the s, 2D GUI acceleration continued to evolve.
The standard was introduced in August by joint efforts between SanDisk, Panasonic and Toshiba as an improvement over MultiMediaCards, and has become the industry standard.
SDA today has about 1, member companies, the SDA uses several trademarked logos owned and licensed by SD-3C to enforce compliance with its specifications and assure users of compatibility. There are many combinations of factors and device families, although as of The three form factors are the size, the mini size, and the micro size. Electrically passive adapters allow a card to fit and function in a device built for a larger card. The SD cards small footprint is a storage medium for smaller, thinner.
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The second-generation Secure Digital card was developed to improve on the MultiMediaCard standard, which continued to evolve, Secure Digital changed the MMC design in several ways, Asymmetrical slots in the sides of the SD card prevent inserting it upside down. Most SD cards are 2. The SD specification envisioned capacities and transfer rates exceeding those of MMC, for a comparison table, see below. While MMC uses a pin for data transfers, the SD card added a four-wire bus mode for higher data rates.
The SD card added Content Protection for Recordable Media security circuitry for digital rights management content-protection, full-size SD cards do not fit into the slimmer MMC slots, and other issues also affect the ability to use one format in a host device designed for the other. Battery electricity — An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars. When a battery is supplying power, its positive terminal is the cathode. The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that when connected to a circuit will flow.
It is the movement of ions within the battery which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work. Historically the term specifically referred to a device composed of multiple cells. Primary batteries are used once and discarded, the materials are irreversibly changed during discharge.
Common examples are the battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable electronic devices. Secondary batteries can be discharged and recharged multiple times using mains power from a wall socket, examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium-ion batteries used for portable electronics such as laptops and smartphones. Batteries have much lower energy than common fuels such as gasoline. This is somewhat offset by the efficiency of electric motors in producing mechanical work. The usage of battery to describe a group of electrical devices dates to Benjamin Franklin, alessandro Volta built and described the first electrochemical battery, the voltaic pile, in This was a stack of copper and zinc plates, separated by brine-soaked paper disks, Volta did not understand that the voltage was due to chemical reactions.
Although early batteries were of value for experimental purposes, in practice their voltages fluctuated. It consisted of a pot filled with a copper sulfate solution, in which was immersed an unglazed earthenware container filled with sulfuric acid. These wet cells used liquid electrolytes, which were prone to leakage and spillage if not handled correctly, many used glass jars to hold their components, which made them fragile and potentially dangerous.
These characteristics made wet cells unsuitable for portable appliances, near the end of the nineteenth century, the invention of dry cell batteries, which replaced the liquid electrolyte with a paste, made portable electrical devices practical. Batteries convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy, a battery consists of some number of voltaic cells. Camera phone — A camera phone is a mobile phone which is able to capture photographs. Most camera phones also record video, most camera phones are simpler than separate digital cameras.
Their usual fixed-focus lenses and smaller sensors limit their performance in poor lighting, lacking a physical shutter, some have a long shutter lag. Photoflash is typically provided by an LED source which illuminates less intensely over a longer exposure time than a bright. Optical zoom and tripod screws are rare and none has a hot shoe for attaching an external flash, some also lack a USB connection or a removable memory card.
Most have Bluetooth and WiFi, and can make geotagged photographs, some of the more expensive camera phones have only a few of these technical disadvantages, but with bigger image sensors, their capabilities approach those of low-end point-and-shoot cameras. In the smartphone era, the sales increase of camera phones caused point-and-shoot camera sales to peak about Most model lines improve their cameras every year or two, most smartphones only have a menu choice to start a camera application program and an on-screen button to activate the shutter.
Some also have a camera button, for quickness and convenience. The principal advantages of camera phones are cost and compactness, indeed for a user who carries a mobile phone anyway, smartphones that are camera phones may run mobile applications to add capabilities such as geotagging and image stitching. However, the screen, being a general purpose control, lacks the agility of a separate cameras dedicated buttons.
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The latest generation of cameras also apply distortion, vignetting. Most camera phones have a digital zoom feature, an external camera can be added, coupled wirelessly to the phone by Wi-Fi. They are compatible with most smartphones, images are usually saved in the JPEG file format, except for some high-end camera phones which have also RAW feature and the Android 5.
Windows Phones can be configured to operate as a camera if the phone is asleep. Smartphone — A smartphone is a mobile phone with an advanced mobile operating system that combines features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use. In , the Japanese firm NTT DoCoMo released the first smartphones to achieve mass adoption within a country, smartphones became widespread in the late s. Most of those produced from onward have high-speed mobile broadband 4G LTE, motion sensors, in the third quarter of , one billion smartphones were in use worldwide.
Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for regular cell phones in early , devices that combined telephony and computing were first conceptualized by Nikola Tesla in and Theodore Paraskevakos in and patented in , and were offered for sale beginning in Paraskevakos was the first to introduce the concepts of intelligence, data processing and they were installed at Peoples Telephone Company in Leesburg, Alabama and were demonstrated to several telephone companies. The original and historic working models are still in the possession of Paraskevakos, the first mobile phone to incorporate PDA features was a prototype developed by Frank Canova in while at IBM and demonstrated that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show.
It included PDA features and other mobile applications such as maps, stock reports. A refined version was marketed to consumers in by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator, the Simon was the first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a smartphone, although it was not called that in The two components were attached by a hinge in what known as a clamshell design, with the display above.
The PDA provided e-mail, calendar, address book, calculator and notebook applications, text-based Web browsing, when closed, the device could be used as a digital cellular phone. The first device marketed as a smartphone, it combined the functions of a phone and PDA. Tablet computer — Tablets often come equipped with sensors, including digital cameras, a microphone, and an accelerometer so images on screens are always displayed upright. The touchscreen display uses the recognition of finger or stylus gestures to replace the mouse, trackpad, tablets are typically larger than smartphones or personal digital assistants with screens 7 inches or larger, measured diagonally.
However much of a tablets functionality resembles that of a modern smartphone, tablets can be classified according to the presence and physical appearance of keyboards. Slates and booklets do not have a keyboard, and usually accept text. Hybrids, convertibles, and 2-in-1s do have physical keyboards, yet they also make use of virtual keyboards. Some 2-in-1s have processors and operating systems like a full laptop, most tablets can use separate keyboards connected using Bluetooth. The format was conceptualized in the century and prototyped and developed in the last two decades of that century.
In April , Apple released the iPad, the first mass-market tablet to achieve widespread popularity, thereafter in the s, tablets rapidly rose in ubiquity and became a large product category used for both personal and workplace applications. The tablet computer and its operating system began with the development of pen computing.
Throughout the 20th century devices with these characteristics have been imagined and created whether as blueprints, prototypes, a device more powerful than todays tablets appeared briefly in Jerry Pournelle and Larry Nivens The Mote in Gods Eye. Adults could also use a Dynabook, but the audience was children. In , the European Union initiated the NewsPad project, inspired by Clarke, Acorn Computers developed and delivered an ARM-based touch screen tablet computer for this program, branding it the NewsPad, the project ended in The operating system and platform design were later licensed to Sharp and Digital Ocean, in , Palm, Inc.
Eye tracking — Eye tracking is the process of measuring either the point of gaze or the motion of an eye relative to the head. An eye tracker is a device for measuring eye positions and eye movement, Eye trackers are used in research on the visual system, in psychology, in psycholinguistics, marketing, as an input device for human-computer interaction, and in product design.
There are a number of methods for measuring eye movement, the most popular variant uses video images from which the eye position is extracted. Other methods use search coils or are based on the electrooculogram, in the s, studies of eye movement were made using direct observations. When does it regress back to already seen words, edmund Huey built an early eye tracker, using a sort of contact lens with a hole for the pupil.
The lens was connected to a pointer that moved in response to the movement of the eye. Huey studied and quantified regressions, and he showed that words in a sentence are not fixated. The first non-intrusive eye trackers were built by Guy Thomas Buswell in Chicago, using beams of light that were reflected on the eye, Buswell made systematic studies into reading and picture viewing. In the s, Alfred L. Yarbus did important eye tracking research and he showed the task given to a subject has a very large influence on the subjects eye movement. He also wrote about the relation between fixations and interest, All the records, records of eye movements show that the observers attention is usually held only by certain elements of the picture.
Eye movement reflects the human thought processes, so the thought may be followed to some extent from records of eye movement. It is easy to determine from these records which elements attract the eye, in what order. The observers attention is drawn to elements which do not give important information but which, in his opinion. Often an observer will focus his attention on elements that are unusual in the circumstances, unfamiliar, incomprehensible. When changing its points of fixation, the observers eye repeatedly returns to the elements of the picture.
Additional time spent on perception is not used to examine the secondary elements, in the s, eye tracking research expanded rapidly, particularly reading research. Galaxy Note 9 - 6. Galaxy Grand Prime Plus - 1. Galaxy A3 - 16Gb - Gold Sand.
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